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Экскурсионные материалы

03.06.2017

Музей космонавтики. Экскурсия на англ.яз.

Государственное бюджетное учреждение культуры г. Москвы

«Мемориальный музей космонавтики»



УТВЕРЖДАЮ

Заместитель директора

ММК по научной работе

_________________В.Л. Климентов

«____»_____________2015 г.





ОБЗОРНАЯ ЭКСКУРСИЯ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

GUIDED HIGHLIGHTS TOUR









Автор-разработчик: Величко Д.А.













ОДОБРЕНО

Научно-методическим

Советом ММК

«____»_________2015 г.



Москва 2015





Маршрут экскурсии





Раздел, экспонат

Время, мин

Примечания


1 часть маршрута

20 мин



Вводный зал «История мироздания»



1.

Встреча группы на карте мира Герхарта Меркатора




Зал «Утро космической эры»



2.

Макет первого искусственного спутника Земли



3.

Макет второго искусственного спутника Земли



4.

Катапультируемый контейнер для подопытных животных второго космического корабля-спутника



5.

Спускаемый аппарат космического корабля «Восток»



6.

Скафандр «СК-1»



7.

Скафандр «Беркут», шлюзовая камера «Волга»



8.

Автоматическая станция Луна-1



9.

Автоматическая станция Луна-3



10.

Автоматическая станция Луна-9




Зал «Творцы космической эры»



11.

Интерьер веранды дома К.Э. Циолковского



12.

Интерьер кабинета-комнаты отдыха С.П. Королева на предприятии ОКБ-1




2 часть маршрута

25 мин



Зал «Космический дом на орбите»



13.

Бытовой отсек космического корабля «Союз»



14.

Скафандр «Сокол-К»



15.

Макет самолёта-лаборатории ИЛ-76



16.

Витрина биологических исследований



17.

Скафандр «Орлан-Д»



18.

Макет базового блока орбитальной станции «Мир»



19.

Витрина с космическим питанием



20.

Спускаемый аппарат космического корабля «Союз ТМ-7»




3 часть маршрута

10 мин



Зал «Исследование Луны и планет Солнечной системы»



21.

Витрина со скафандром американского астронавта Майкла Коллинза; витрина с образцами лунного грунта



22.

Макет Лунохода-1



23.

Автоматическая станция Луна-16




Зал «Международное сотрудничество в космосе»



24.

Макет Международной космической станции




Зал «Международный космический парк»



25.

Система аварийного спасения



26.

Макет ракеты-носителя «Великий Поход-2F»



27.

Спускаемый аппарат космического корабля «Союз»

























Вводный зал «История мироздания»



Встреча группы на карте мира Герхарта Меркатора.



Dear guests, ladies and gentlemen! Welcome to the Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics. My name is Dmitry and today I will be your guide.

A few words about our museum: it was opened on April 10, 1981. Its history is closely connected with the creation of the Monument to the Conquerors of Space, which takes the form of a skyward rocket you have seen outside. The height of the monument is 110 meters and it is made of polished titanium, which is widely used in spacecraft building.

Soviet Russia launched the Space Age in 1957 with its Sputnik artificial satellite. Most people outside Russia had expected the United States to launch its own satellite first. The world was amazed; the USA stunned; Russia delighted. There followed a string of more firsts from the Russian space stable: first animal in space, first probe to the Moon and first pictures returned from its far side; first landers on Mars and on Venus. The USA struggled as the high frontier of the Cold War was stormed by the Russians.

Then came Yuri Gagarin. On April 12, 1961 this likable, supremely able young man was blasted into orbit as the first human ever to reach space. The United States’s response was bald and massively ambitious, President Kennedy committing his nation to landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth: Project Apollo was born.

But still the Russian firsts continued. First woman in space: Valentina Tereshkova. First crew in space: Vladimir Komarov, Konstantin Feoktistov and Boris Egorov aboard Voskhod spacecraft. First spacewalk: Alexey Leonov from Voskhod-2.

The Russian space program relied on hundreds of thousands of scientists, designers, technicians and managers spread across a bewildering array of mainly military research and development facilities. At the helm was the remarkable Sergei Korolev, the Chief Designer, a human dynamo of mental strength, resilience, technical expertise and political and managerial flair.

Now, I invite you inside.



Зал «Утро космической эры»



Макет первого искусственного спутника Земли



Here you can see a full-scale model of the first artificial Earth satellite. The authentic one is displayed in the end of the exposition hall, so if it is launched now into space, it will be fully operational. Its “twin brother” was launched from Baikonur cosmodrome on October 4, 1957. It was operational for 92 days and then burned in the upper atmosphere. What was its destination? The onboard equipment for the first time measured density of the upper atmosphere, investigated specifics of the radio signals, measured temperature and pressure and sent the information back to Earth using these 4 long antennas.

Launching Sputnik was enormously important, not just from a scientific but also from a political point of view. It was a demonstration to the whole world of the Soviet Union’s scientific and technological might and, without doubt, the launch provided an unprecedented boost to its reputation.



Макет второго искусственного спутника Земли



Here you can see the second artificial biological Earth satellite, which was launched the same year on November 3. Actually, the man was not the first living organism launched into space. The first star traveler was a dog named Laika. All conditions required for normal support of the animal were created in the capsule of the satellite. For the first time prolonged effect of weightlessness upon a living organism was studied. The second artificial satellite existed for 162 days. Unfortunately, the dog did not survive (she died in the first 4 hours from overheating) because at that time there was no technology for returning living organisms back to Earth.



Катапультируемый контейнер для подопытных животных второго космического корабля-спутника



Please take a look at the ejection container. It is a real one, it came back from space. What is so special about it? For the first time the system for returning cosmonauts back to Earth was tested. This time aboard the spacecraft there were 2 dogs named Belka and Strelka (you can see them in front of you in their stuffed state), plus other living creatures: mice, flies, fungi and different types of bacteria. All animals returned safely, you can see the dents left on the metal where the container hit the Earth.

Strelka went on to have six puppies with a male dog named Pushok, who participated in many ground-based space experiments but never made it into space. One of the pups was named Pushinka ("Fluffy") and was presented to President John F. Kennedy's wife by Nikita Khrushchev in 1961.



Спускаемый аппарат космического корабля «Восток»



Now, we will see a full-scale model of the Vostok spacecraft (its descent module). Yuri Gagarin became the first astronaut of the planet; he was launched on April 12, 1961. In the same module he returned back to Earth successfully after 108 minute flight. After the separation of the ejection seat from the descent module at the height of 7 km, the parachute was deployed at the height of 4 km and both the module and the ejection seat landed separately. Why the module is black? Outside the shell is covered with a thick (3-18 cm) thermal insulating layer which burns in the upper atmosphere.

Descent module has 3 hatches: access, parachute and technological, plus two heat-resistant windows. Please take a close look.



Скафандр «СК-1»



And over there you can see the authentic training space suit of Yuri Gagarin (the same were used by the first cosmonauts). The bright orange color is clearly visible on any surface and the rescue team would easily find the cosmonaut. Do you see this mirror on the sleeve? Any ideas why the cosmonaut needs it? Actually, it helps him to see behind his back, because the design of the helmet does not permit the cosmonaut to turn his head.

The development of this space suit began in 1959, and it was created in an extremely reduced time frame, virtually within six months. This model was equipped with a rigid helmet to protect the cosmonaut from shock or injury when using the ejection seat or when landing by parachute.

The story of Gagarin’s helmet has become a legend. The helmet’s familiar inscription “СССР” was down to Tigran Davidiants. The helmet had no inscription in the blueprints, and the day before the launch somebody brought up the worrying possibility that the cosmonaut might be mistaken for a foreign spy when he landed by parachute. We recalled the incident in 1960 when Francis Powers, the American spy pilot, was shot down. So it was essential to have an unmistakable indication that the man inside the spacesuit was a Soviet citizen. The night before the flight Davidiants got some red paint and a brush and inscribed the helmet: it was not perfect, but it was clear enough.

And now, my dear guests, you will watch a movie about the International Space Station. Please follow me to the cinema.

[After the movie]: How was the movie? Any questions about it? … Good.

And now, dear visitors, we will continue our tour, please follow me.



Скафандр «Беркут», шлюзовая камера «Волга»

Here on the right you can see the authentic training space suit Berkut, in which cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov performed the first in the history spacewalk on March 18, 1965. Duration of his stay outside the spacecraft was 24 minutes (12 minutes under the conditions of outer space).

At the end of the spacewalk, Leonov's spacesuit ballooned: it had inflated in the vacuum of space to the point where he could not re-enter the airlock. He opened a valve to allow some of the suit's pressure to bleed off, and was barely able to get back inside the capsule. Leonov violated procedure by entering the airlock head-first, then he turned inside to close the outer hatch. When he returned back to Earth, Aleksey Arhipovich was asked: “How did you manage to turn inside the airlock? It’s impossible!” and he answered: “If you want to survive, everything is possible”.



Автоматическая станция Луна-1



Luna 1 was the first spacecraft to reach the Moon, and the first of a series of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. The spacecraft was sphere-shaped. Five antennae extended from one hemisphere. Instrument ports also protruded from the surface of the sphere. There were no propulsion systems on the Luna 1 spacecraft itself. Because of its high velocity and its announced package of various metallic emblems with the Soviet coat of arms, it was concluded that Luna 1 was intended to impact the Moon.

The primary objectives of the mission were to measure temperature and pressure inside the vehicle; study the gas components of interplanetary matter and corpuscular radiation of the Sun; measure the magnetic fields of the Earth and moon; study meteoric particles in space; study the distribution of heavy nuclei in primary cosmic radiation; and study other properties of cosmic rays.

On 2 January 1959, after reaching escape velocity, Luna 1 separated from its 1472 kg third stage. The third stage, 5.2 m long and 2.4 m in diameter, travelled along with Luna 1. On 3 January, at a distance of 113,000 km from Earth, a large (1 kg) cloud of sodium gas was released by the spacecraft. This glowing orange trail of gas, visible over the Indian Ocean with the brightness of a sixth-magnitude star, allowed astronomers to track the spacecraft. It also served as an experiment on the behavior of gas in outer space. Luna 1 passed within 5995 km of the Moon's surface on 4 January after 34 hours of flight. It went into orbit around the Sun, between the orbits of Earth and Mars.

The spacecraft contained a 19.993 MHz system which transmitted signals of 50.9 second duration, a 183.6 MHz transmitter for tracking purposes, and a 70.2 MHz transmitter. Four whip antennas and one rigid antenna mounted on the sphere provided the communications link. Power was supplied by mercury-oxide batteries and silver-zinc accumulators. There were five different sets of scientific devices for studying interplanetary space, including a magnetometer, geiger counter, scintillation counter, and micrometeorite detector, and other equipment. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space, including the discovery that the Moon had no magnetic field and that a solar wind, a strong flow of ionized plasma emanating from the Sun, streamed through interplanetary space



Автоматическая станция Луна-3



Luna 3, an automatic interplanetary station, was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side. The spacecraft returned very indistinct pictures, but, through computer enhancement, a tentative atlas of the lunar farside was produced. These first views of the lunar far side showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and only two dark regions which were named Mare Moscovrae (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Dreams).

The spacecraft was a cylindrically shaped cannister with hemispherical ends and a wide flange near the top end. The probe was 130 cm long and 120 cm at its maximum diameter at the flange. Most of the cylindrical section was roughly 95 cm in diameter. The cannister was hermetically sealed and pressurized at 0.23 atmospheres. Solar cells were mounted along the outside of the cylinder and provided power to the chemical batteries stored inside the spacecraft. Jalousies for thermal control were also positioned along the cylinder and would open to expose a radiating surface when the interior temperature exceeded 25 degrees C. The upper hemisphere of the probe held the covered opening for the cameras. Four antennae protruded from the top of the probe and two from the bottom. Other scientific apparatus (micrometeoroid and cosmic ray detectors) was mounted on the outside of the probe. Gas jets for attitude control were mounted on the outside of the lower end of the spacecraft. Photoelectric cells were used to maintain orientation with respect to the Sun and Moon. The spacecraft had no rockets for course adjustment. The interior of the spacecraft held the cameras and film processing system, radio equipment, propulsion systems, batteries, gyroscopic units for attitude control, and circulating fans for temperature control. The spacecraft was spin stabilized and was directly radio-controlled from Earth.

The imaging system on Luna 3 was designated Yenisey-2 and consisted of a dual lens camera, an automatic film processing unit, and a scanner. The camera carried 40 frames of temperature- and radiation resistant 35-mm isochrome film. The 200 mm objective could image the full disk of the Moon and the 500 mm could take an image of a region on the surface. The camera was fixed in the spacecraft and pointing was achieved by rotating the craft itself. A photocell was used to detect the Moon and orient the upper end of the spacecraft and cameras towards it. Detection of the Moon signaled the camera cover to open and the photography sequence to start automatically. After photography was complete, the film was moved to an on-board processor where it was developed, fixed, and dried. Commands from Earth were then given and the film was moved to a scanner where a bright spot produced by a cathode ray tube was projected through the film onto a photelectric multiplier. The spot was scanned across the film and the photomultiplier converted the intensity of the light passing through the film into an electric signal which was transmitted to Earth. A frame could be scanned with a resolution of 1000 lines, the transmission could be done at a slow rate for large distances from Earth and a faster rate at closer range.

After launch on an 8K72 (number I1-8) on a course over the Earth's north pole the Blok-E escape stage was shut down by radio control from Earth at the proper velocity to put the Luna 3 on a trajectory to the Moon. Initial radio contact showed the signal from the probe was only about half as strong as expected and the interior temperature was increasing. The spacecraft spin axis was reoriented and some equipment shut down resulting in a drop in temperature from 40 C to about 30 C. At a distance of 60,000 to 70,000 km from the Moon, the orientation system was turned on and the spacecraft rotation was stopped. The lower end of the station was oriented towards the Sun, which was shining on the far side of the Moon. The spacecraft passed within 6,200 km of the Moon near the south pole at its closest approach at 14:16 UT on 6 October 1959 and continued on to the far side. On 7 October the photocell on the upper end of the spacecraft detected the sunlit far side of the Moon and the photography sequence started. The first image was taken at 03:30 UT at a distance of 63,500 km from the Moon's surface and the last 40 minutes later from 66,700 km. A total of 29 photographs were taken, covering 70% of the far side. After the photography was complete the spacecraft resumed spinning, passed over the north pole of the Moon and returned towards the Earth. Attempts to transmit the photographs to Earth began on 8 October but were believed to be unsuccessful due to the low signal strength. As Luna 3 got closer to Earth a total of 17 resolvable but noisy photographs were transmitted by 18 October. Contact with the probe was lost on 22 October. The probe was believed to have burned up in the Earth's atmosphere in March or April of 1960, but may have survived in orbit until after 1962.



Автоматическая станция Луна-9



Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and to transmit photographic data from the Moon's surface to Earth, preceding the U.S. Surveyor 1 soft lander by about 4 months. The probe also proved that the lunar surface could support the weight of a lander and that an object would not sink into a loose layer of dust as some models predicted. Luna 9 launched on 31 January 1966 at 11:41 UT (14:41 Moscow time) from Baikonur Cosmodrome and reached the Moon on 3 February.

The spacecraft comprised two parts, which had a total mass of 1538 kg and stood 2.7 meters tall. The Luna 9 automatic lunar station that achieved the soft landing was a spherical body with a diameter of 58 centimeters and a mass of 99 kg. The station consisted of a hermetically sealed container, pressurized to 1.2 atmospheres, which held the radio system, programming device, batteries, thermal control system and scientific apparatus. Four antennas that automatically opened after landing were mounted on the outside of the compartment. An airbag amortization system to cushion the landing was also mounted outside the station. The entire compartment was mounted above a flight stage which held the main KTDU-5A retrorocket, four outrigger vernier rockets, a toroidal aluminum alloy fuel tank, a 90 cm diameter spherical oxidizer tank, fuel pumping system, the nitrogen tank for airbag inflation, and guidance and landing sensor equipment. This equipment included gyroscopes, electro-optical apparatus, the soft-landing radar system, and small orientation engines. Compartments on either side of the main body with a total mass of 300 kg contained guidance radar and the 3 nitrogen jets and gas bottles of the attitude control system for the cruise stage, designed to be jettisoned once the descent was underway. The total propellant load (amine-based fuel and nitric acid oxidizer) was about 800 kg. The scientific equipment comprised a lightweight (1.5 kg) panoramic television camera and an SBM-10 radiation detector. A mirror on an 8 cm turret was mounted on the top of the lander above the camera to allow 360 degree coverage. The scientific container was designed to separate from the flight stage immediately before touchdown. The thermal control system maintained the interior temperature between 19 and 30 degrees C. All operations were battery powered.

The Luna 9 payload was carried to Earth orbit by an A-2-E vehicle and then conveyed toward the Moon by a fourth stage rocket that separated itself from the payload on January 31. The spacecraft spun up to 0.67 rpm by the nitrogen jets. A mid-course correction, involving a 48 second burn, took place on 1 February at 19:29 UT (22:29 Moscow time), resulting in a delta-V of 71.2 m/sec. At an altitude of 8300 km the spacecraft was oriented for retro-rocket firing and its spin was stopped. At 75 km altitude, 48 seconds before landing at a velocity of 2.6 km/s, the radar altimeter sent commands to jettison the side modules, inflate the airbags, and begin retrorocket firing. At 250 meters from the surface the main retrorocket was turned off and the four outrigger engines were used to slow the craft. At a height of about 5 meters a contact sensor touched the ground, the engines were shut down, and the landing capsule was ejected, impacting the surface at 22 km/hr, bouncing several times and coming to rest in Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms) west of Reiner and Marius craters at approximately 7.08 N, 64.37 W on February 3, 1966 at 18:45:30 UT (21:45:30 Moscow time). After about 250 seconds the four petals, forming the top shell of the spacecraft, opened outward and stabilized the spacecraft on the lunar surface. Spring-controlled antennas assumed operating positions, and the television camera rotatable mirror system, which operated by revolving and tilting, began a photographic survey of the lunar environment 250 seconds after landing. The first test image, which showed very poor contrast because the Sun was only about 3 degrees above the horizon, was completed 15 minutes later. Seven radio sessions, totaling 8 hours and 5 minutes, were transmitted as were three series of TV pictures. When assembled, the photographs provided four panoramic views of the nearby lunar surface. The pictures included views of nearby rocks and of the horizon 1.4 km away from the spacecraft. They showed Luna 9 had landed near the rim of a 25 meter diameter crater at a tilt of about 15 degrees. The probe took the first full panorama on 4 February from 1:50 to 3:30 UT, with the Sun 7 degrees above the horizon. After the first panorama was taken the probe slipped as the regolith on the slope settled, and was at a 22.5 degree tilt when the second panorama was taken at 15:30 to 17:10 UT on 4 February. Two more panoramas were obtained, on 5 February from 16:00 to 17:40 UT, and the next day from about 20:00 to 21:00 UT. The pictures included views of nearby rocks and of the horizon 1.4 km away from the spacecraft. Radiation data were also returned, showing a dosage of about 30 millirads per day. On 6 February at 22:55 UT the batteries ran out of power and the mission ended.



Зал «Творцы Космической эры»



Интерьер веранды дома К.Э. Циолковского



This museum installation is dedicated to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Sergey Korolev, without whom all future space travels in our country would be impossible.

K. Tsiolkovsky was the first to determine the formula of jet propulsion, laid ideas about spaceflight, made calculations, developed schemes and described multi-stage liquid-fueled rocket. At the veranda of his house (in which he had been living since 1904) in Kaluga he arranged a workshop, where his aerodynamic experiments were carried out. Tsiolkovsky used these stairs to access the roof, where he used the telescope to observe the night sky.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a legendary theorist of cosmonautics who produced pioneering work on space flight in the late 19th and early 20th century.

He was a major Soviet Russian scientific thinker who set out the theoretical foundations of cosmonautics through his work on rocketry and the possibilities of the space flight. Aged ten, young Kostya caught scarlet fever and became almost completely deaf, and he had to leave school and continue his education by reading his father’s books. Later he studied in libraries and taught himself elementary and then advanced mathematics and physics. In autumn 1897 Tsiolkovsky, as an external student, passed his exams to become a primary schoolteacher, and was sent to work in the little town of Borowsk in Kaluga province. Here he stayed for 12 years and established himself not just as a teacher, but as a bidding genius whose scientific ideas were well ahead of his time.

Tsiokovsky’s scientific work focused particularly on questions of rocket dynamics and space travel.

Above all, Konstantin Eduardovich argued convincingly for rocket propulsion as the sole possible basis to carry out space flight and devised an equation that described the movement of a rocket-propelled aircraft. (This formula is known today as the Tsiolkovsy Equation, or the Rocket Equation).



Интерьер кабинета-комнаты отдыха С.П. Королева на предприятии ОКБ-1



Over there you can see the founder of practical astronautics, Sergey Korolev, genius designer, who organized works for creating rocket-and-space technologies. Under his guidance the First artificial Earth satellite was designed and Yuri Gagarin was launched into space.

Before his death he was often referred to only as "Chief Designer", because his name and role in the Soviet space program was a state secret. Only many years later he was publicly acknowledged as the lead man behind Soviet success in space. All the belongings in this room look like the original ones that were owned by Sergey Korolev.

Apparently Korolev could have received the Nobel prize twice – in 1957 for putting the first artificial Earth satellite into orbit, and in 1961 for the first manned space flight – but he was now allowed to because of the rigorous secrecy imposed by the Soviet authorities. Nobel committee proposed putting forward the chief engineer for prize and asked his name, Nikita Khrushchev is said to have replied that the creator of the USSR’s new technology was the entire nation.



And now we will continue our tour in the next exhibition hall.



Зал «Космический дом на орбите»



Бытовой отсек космического корабля «Союз»



Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau in the 1960s that remains in service today.

Here you can see the original, authentic Soyuz spacecraft, which is used nowadays to transport 3 cosmonauts/astronauts to the orbit and then to bring them down. The upper part is called “orbital module” in which astronauts mostly rest and relax. It houses all the cargo and equipment that will not be needed for reentry. The module also contains a toilet, docking avionics and communications gear. A hatch between it and the descent module can be closed so as to isolate it to act as an airlock if needed, crew members exiting through its side port (near the descent module). On the launch pad, the crew enters the spacecraft through this port. Through the upper hatch astronauts will access the International Space Station. The other part of the spacecraft (that is located on the ground floor) is called the descent module, which is authentic. It came back from space in 2004. Please take a close look.



Спасательный скафандр «Сокол-К»



In front of you there is an authentic Sokol-K rescue space suit that belonged to cosmonaut Valery Kubasov during his flight aboard Souyz spacecraft. Spacesuits of Sokol-K series (that were in use from 1973 to 1981) were designed to create normal hygienic conditions for cosmonauts and provide their life support and performance in case of cabin depressurization. Crewmembers don the spacesuits (mass is about 10 kg) during the most dangerous stages of the flight: the launch, docking operations and recovery.

Do you know what a cosmonaut here is holding in his hand? What is this suitcase used for? Actually, it is a portable ventilation system: it produces the cleanest air and cools down space suit from inside. Moreover, you will be able to taste the “space air” yourself! The museum uses the same filtration system (Potok filters) as astronauts use in space and soon you will be able to feel it.



Макет самолета-лаборатории ИЛ-76



Before a cosmonaut is launched into space, he needs to complete the training on the ground. Can the weightlessness be experienced in terrestrial conditions? The answer is “yes”. Here you can see a laboratory-aircraft, inside which a short-term weightlessness is created during the flight along Kepler’s parabola. In the course of one flight 10-15 periods of weightlessness for 25 seconds each are created during which cosmonauts train to perform various operations: spacesuit donning and working with equipment.



Витрина биологических исследований



Inside this showcase you can see a “space greenhouse”. Biological experiments aboard space stations are necessary for developing reliable life support systems under conditions of prolonged stay in orbit. This lemon tree grew for 5 years and wheat for 157 days in weightlessness. Usually it takes 2 months for the wheat and 1.5 year for a lemon tree to grow to this size. All tanks, scientific equipment and devices are authentic and came from space.



Скафандр «Орлан-Д»



The Orlan space suit (which means “Sea-Eagle”) is a series of semi-rigid one-piece space suit models designed and built by Research & Development Production Enterprise Zvezda. They were used for spacewalks in the Soviet and Russian space programs. The first spacewalk using an Orlan suit took place on December 20, 1977, on the Soviet space station Salyut 6. The space suit has gone through several models. The latest model, called Orlan-MK, was tested during a spacewalk in June, 2009.

The Orlan space suit is semi-rigid, with a solid torso and flexible arms. It includes a rear hatch entry through the backpack that allows it to be donned relatively quickly (approximately five minutes). The first Orlan suits were attached to the spacecraft by an umbilical tether that supplied power and communications links. The Orlan-DM and later models are self-sustaining.

Actually, you can’t put on this space suit, but instead you need to enter it. It is used together with a Water-Cooling and Ventilation Garment that was designed to remove excessive heat from the body of a cosmonaut. Modern space suit weighs more than 100 kg, but in space its actual weight is zero.

Water-Cooling Garment. Cosmonauts must wear water-cooling garment suits under their main pressure suits to keep their bodies from overheating; sweating would be ineffective as the sweat cannot evaporate in a sealed space suit. Chilled water is pumped through tubules sewn into the garment so keeping the cosmonaut cool. The warmed water is then re-cooled in a heat exchange unit contained within the main suit’s life support system.



Макет базового блока орбитальной станции «Мир»



Dear guests, you are looking at the base block of Mir orbital complex that was launched on March 20, 1986. Mir (or “Peace”) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, owned by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. Until March 21, 2001 it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station after Mir's orbit decayed. The station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space.

Mir was the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in orbit and set the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at 3,644 days until 23 October 2010 when it was surpassed by the ISS. It holds the record for the longest single human spaceflight, with Valeriy Polyakov spending 437 days and 18 hours on the station between 1994 and 1995. Mir was occupied for a total of twelve and a half years out of its fifteen-year lifespan, having the capacity to support a resident crew of three or larger crews for short term visits.

The core module was designed to support activity of a crew up to six cosmonauts.

Now, I invite you inside.

All around us is the interior compartment: on your left is the central post of an operator, behind me a cosmonaut’s cabin with a special fixed sleeping bag, so a cosmonaut won’t fly away, multi-functional table, space food, on your right is a toilet facility. Aboard the International Space Station shower does not exist anymore, but instead large wet wipes are used. You can also see the laptop on the ceiling surface. It looks rather wild here, on Earth, but in space it is a common thing. As you know, in the outer space there’s no “up” or ”down”, and the ceiling easily can become a floor for you. Down there you can see our planet through the glass of the porthole.

Please take a look and I will wait for you outside.



Витрина с космическим питанием



The food has specific requirements of providing balanced nutrition for individuals working in space, while being easy and safe to store, prepare and consume in the machinery-filled low gravity environments of manned spacecraft. In recent years, space food has been used by various nations engaging on space programs as a way to share and show off their cultural identity and facilitate intercultural communication. Although astronauts consume a wide variety of foods and beverages in space, the initial idea was to supply astronauts with a formula diet that would supply all the needed vitamins and nutrients.

Aboard the ISS the Russian crew has a selection of over 150 dishes (In the Soviet Union it used to be around 300 dishes).

Packaging for space food serves the primary purposes of preserving and containing the food. The packaging, however, must also be light-weight, easy to dispose and useful in the preparation of the food for consumption. The packaging also includes a bar-coded label, which allows for the tracking of an astronaut's diet. The labels also specify the food's preparation instructions in both English and Russian.

Many foods from the Russian space program are packaged in cans and tins. These are heated through electro-resistive methods, opened with a can-opener, and the food inside consumed directly. Russian soups are hydrated and consumed directly from their packages.

Space foods are packaged in retort pouches or employ freeze drying. They are also packaged in sealed containers which fit into trays to keep them in place. The trays include straps on the underside, allowing astronauts to attach the tray to an anchor point such as their legs or a wall surface and include clips for retaining a beverage pouch or utensils in the microgravity environment.

Shown here are bread cubes, porridge oats with peaches, cottage cheese… etc. Early space food comprised simple menus including bread and soup-filled tubes. Today’s menus are more sophisticated and can include the favoured foods of the individual cosmonauts.



Do you know what to do if you see a landing module with astronauts? You can save them! And now you are going to learn how to do it.



Спускаемый аппарат космического корабля «Союз ТМ-7»



Now, I would like to show you the museum installation “Emergency landing in the winter forest”. This is a real descent module which landed on April 27, 1989. All cosmonauts and astronauts are trained to survive in various conditions, because in case of an emergency situation there is a possibility to land anywhere in the world: desert, forest, or even on the water. So how can you save the crew if you see such spacecraft landing near you? First, you need to find one of 3 keys, which are located at the back of the module. Be careful not to stand there for a long time, because the radioactive unit is working. You need to open the hatch using one of these keys and then help the space crew to get out.



Зал «Исследование Луны и планет Солнечной системы»



Витрина со скафандром американского астронавта Майкла Коллинза; витрина с образцами лунного грунта



Dear guests, here you can see the spacesuit of American astronaut Michael Collins, pilot of the command module Apollo-11 spacecraft, who accomplished lunar mission (together with Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin) on July 20, 1969. At the site of landing they left memorial plaque “We came in peace for all mankind”. From 1969 to 1972 seven United States expeditions were sent on to the Moon.

And inside this showcase you can see the real, authentic lunar soil, collected by Neil Armstrong. Please take a close look.



Макет Лунохода-1



An amazing spacecraft gently settled to the lunar surface on November 17, 1970. It carried the first successful robotic lunar rover - Lunokhod 1. For the next ten months the rover was driven by operators in the Soviet Union, with the total distance traveled exceeding 10 km.

After landing, the rover drove down a ramp onto the lunar surface and tested its eight wheels. The rover was driven by solar power during the day; at night it parked and relied on thermal energy from a polonium-210 radioisotope heater to survive the cold (-150°C).

The intrepid rover sent back valuable data concerning the composition of the regolith (soil), close up views of the local topography, and important engineering measurements of the regolith.

Two years later (January 1973) Luna 21 landed in Le Monnier crater, delivering an upgraded Lunokhod 2. It sported higher resolution cameras and an improved scientific payload. Like its predecessor, it was driven by engineers on Earth during the day, and parked at night. Lunokhod 2 explored the Moon for about four months.



Макет автоматической станции Луна-16



Luna 16 was the first robotic probe to land on the Moon and return a sample to Earth and represented the first lunar sample return mission by the Soviet Union and the third overall, following the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. The spacecraft consisted of two attached stages, an ascent stage mounted on top of a descent stage. The descent stage was a cylindrical body with four protruding landing legs, fuel tanks, a landing radar, and a dual descent engine complex. A main descent engine was used to slow the craft until it reached a cutoff point which was determined by the onboard computer based on altitude and velocity. After cutoff a bank of lower thrust jets was used for the final landing. The descent stage also acted as a launch pad for the ascent stage. The ascent stage was a smaller cylinder with a rounded top. It carried a cylindrical hermetically sealed soil sample container inside a re-entry capsule. The spacecraft descent stage was equipped with a television camera, radiation and temperature monitors, telecommunications equipment, and an extendable arm with a drilling rig for the collection of a lunar soil sample.

The Luna 16 automatic station was launched toward the Moon from a preliminary Earth orbit and after one mid-course correction on 13 September it entered a circular 111 km lunar orbit on 17 September 1970. The lunar gravity was studied from this orbit, and then the spacecraft was fired into an elliptical orbit with a perilune of 15.1 km. The main braking engine was fired on 20 September, initiating the descent to the lunar surface. The main descent engine cut off at an altitude of 20 m and the landing jets cut off at 2 m height at a velocity less than 2.4 m/s, followed by vertical free-fall. At 05:18 UT, the spacecraft soft landed on the lunar surface in Mare Foecunditatis (the Sea of Fertility) as planned, approximately 100 km west of Webb crater. This was the first landing made in the dark on the Moon, as the Sun had set about 60 hours earlier. The drill was deployed and penetrated to a depth of 35 cm before encountering hard rock or large fragments of rock. The column of regolith in the drill tube was then transferred to the soil sample container. After 26 hours and 25 minutes on the lunar surface, the ascent stage, with the hermetically sealed soil sample container, lifted off from the Moon carrying 101 grams of collected material at 07:43 UT on 21 September. The lower stage of Luna 16 remained on the lunar surface and continued transmission of lunar temperature and radiation data. The Luna 16 re-entry capsule returned directly to Earth without any mid-course corrections, made a ballistic entry into the Earth's atmosphere on 24 September and deployed parachutes. The capsule landed approximately 80 km SE of the city of Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan at 03:26 UT.

Inside this showcase you can find the Soviet lunar soil.



Зал «Международное сотрудничество в космосе»



Макет Международной космической станции



The International Space Station (or the ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Its first component was launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest artificial body in orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth. The ISS consists of pressurized modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components. The ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets as well as American Space Shuttles.

The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an altitude of between 330 and 435 km by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft. It completes 15.54 orbits per day.

ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US. The station has been continuously occupied for 15 years and 48 days since the arrival of Expedition 1 on November 2, 2000. This is the longest continuous human presence in space, having surpassed the previous record of 9 years and 357 days held by Mir. The station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: Soyuz, Progress, the Automated Transfer Vehicle, the H-II Transfer Vehicle, Dragon and Cygnus. It has been visited by astronauts, cosmonauts and space tourists from 17 different nations.

After the US Space Shuttle program ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the International Space Station, and Dragon became the only provider of bulk cargo-return-to-Earth services.

The ISS program is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) and the United States Orbital Segment (USOS), which is shared by many nations.



Зал «Международный космический парк»



Система аварийного спасения

Here you can see the rocket Soyuz-U and on its top there is a Launch Escape System (on the left). It was designed for emergency escaping fire or explosion zones of the rocket. On September 26, 1983 during launch propellant-feed system went on fire. Just seconds before the explosion the Escape System was activated and took away the upper stage with cosmonauts Vladimir Titov and Gennadiy Strekalov to a safe distance.



Макет ракеты-носителя «Великий поход-2F»



China became the third world's power capable to perform a manned spaceflight. This was implemented in 2003 from one of the biggest in the world Jiuquan cosmodrome in Goby desert.

Besides Jiuquan China uses Xichang Launch center in Sichuan Province from where Long March boosters are launched. Please take a look at the Long March rocket model.

The Long March 2F is a Chinese orbital carrier rocket, part of the Long March rocket family. Designed to launch crewed Shenzhou spacecraft, the Long March 2F is a human-rated two-stage version of the Long March 2E rocket. The Long March 2F made its maiden flight on November 19, 1999, with the Shenzhou 1 spacecraft. After the flight of Shenzhou 3, CPC General Secretary and President Jiang Zemin named the rocket 'Shenjian' meaning 'Divine Arrow'.

On October 15, 2003, a Long March 2F launched Shenzhou 5, China's first human spaceflight. It has since launched the Shenzhou 6, Shenzhou 7, Shenzhou 9, and Shenzhou 10 missions into orbit.



Спускаемый аппарат космического корабля «Союз ТМ-7»



The reentry capsule, also known as the descent module, is used for launch and the journey back to Earth. Half of the reentry capsule is covered by a heat-resistant covering to protect it during reentry; this half faces the Earth during re-entry. It is slowed initially by the atmosphere, then by a braking parachute, followed by the main parachute which slows the craft for landing. At one meter above the ground, solid-fuel braking engines mounted behind the heat shield are fired to give a soft landing.

Now we are going to take a look into the real, authentic descent module of Soyuz spacecraft, which returned back to Earth in 2004.



And here our tour ends, thank you for your attention and have a good day!

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